Friday, 28 August 2015

X-ray Equipment – An Overview, Various Types & Their Usage

X-Ray equipment are used worldwide in medical imaging process for creating visual representations of internal body parts for medical intervention. X-Rays are a quick, painless and effective way of producing images of the internal structure of the body – specially for bones and teeth through X Ray Equipment. X-rays are used for revealing internal structures of the human body that are hidden by skin and bones for the purpose of diagnose and treatment of the problem. Many a times, X-ray prove beneficial for highlighting lung infections, breast cancer, broken blood vessels and abdominal irregularities.

Producing An X–ray Image

In this imaging process, an electromagnetic radiation (X-ray) is used for producing an image of the internal structure of the human body. An image is created by a generating heterogeneous beam of X-ray, which is projected toward the object. These X-ray beams are captured behind the object by using a detector – photographic film or digital detector. The 2D representation of image is then superimposed on abovementioned films.

When X-ray beams pass through the body, a certain amount is absorbed by various body parts. The absorption rate directly depends on the density of organ/bone through which they pass. Dense materials like bones and metal absorb the most of X-rays and hence they appear white in color. Fat and muscle appear gray in color as they absorb less rays. The air present in lungs absorbs the little amount of X-rays and hence they appear black in color.

X Ray Process
Various Types Of X-ray Equipment

The process of X-ray is carried out by trained radiographers, possessing knowledge of operating X-ray machines, X-Ray Equipment and computerized tomography (CT) scanners. As producing and development of an X-ray image involves the use of multiple equipment and a high level of radiation risk is associated with these imaging tests.

In this process, X-ray generator is considered as a heart of X-ray system which is used for carrying out a reaction between cathode and anode for producing X-rays. The X-ray film processor, digitizer, viewer and other accessories such as X-ray film, X-ray sensors and X-ray hangers are used for developing image and interpreting the result thereof.

1) X Ray Generator requires three major components for its operation, they are – X-ray tube, high voltage generator along with the cooling console and cooling system. The X-ray tube is consists of cathode and anode (tungsten or copper) sources. The former is used to direct a stream of high speed electrons in a vacuum and latter is employed for collecting these electrons. The collision of electrons at anode forces electron to slow down or stop completely which further emits heat and X-radiation. It is very necessary to use good cooling system to cool the anode as collision results in producing 1% part of X-ray and 99% of the heat.

2) X Ray Film consist of a transparent, blue-tinted coating on both sides with an emulsion-gelatin, which contains microscopic and radiation sensitive silver halide crystal (silver chloride and silver bromide). When the X-rays strike these radiation sensitive crystals, some of the Br- ions are liberated and captured by the Ag+ ions, thereby creating a hidden image on film which yet to be developed.

3) X-Ray Film Processor is used for developing the hidden image which is created by altering the crystal present in X-ray film. The developing process involves the exposure of film to several different solutions of chemicals for a controlled interval of time. The reaction of silver crystal with developing agent is followed by fixing of unexposed silver crystal, washing of film to remove excess chemicals and drying of the film for viewing the image. The development of the film is either done manually in a dark room or by using Automatic Processor. The latter is effective in reducing the film processing time as compared to manual development.

4) X-Ray Film Digitizer is a device which is used for transferring the X-ray films into digital images. It is easier to store, share and manage digital images as compared with hard X-ray films.

5) X Ray Viewers are used for viewing the X-ray image of films. These viewer offer a combination of unmatched features to provide better reliability and visibility of these X-ray films. These viewers uses energy efficient LED source for emitting more bright, uniform and soft light. Single frame, double frame and triple frame of viewers are available in the market.

1 comment:

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